Scaffolds and Coatings for Bone Regeneration

last updated: 2021-01-19
TitleScaffolds and Coatings for Bone Regeneration
Publication TypeReview Paper
Year of Publication2020
AuthorsPereira H., Cengiz I. F., Silva F. S., Reis R. L., and Oliveira J. M.
Abstract Text

Bone tissue has an astonishing self-healing capacity yet only for non-critical size defects (<6 mm) and clinical intervention is needed for critical-size defects and beyond that along with non-union bone fractures and bone defects larger than critical size represent a major healthcare problem. Autografts are, still, being used as preferred to treat large bone defects. Mostly, due to the presence of living differentiated and progenitor cells, its osteogenic, osteoinductive and osteoconductive properties that allow osteogenesis, vascularization, and provide structural support. Bone tissue engineering strategies have been proposed to overcome the limited supply of grafts. Complete and successful bone regeneration can be influenced by several factors namely: the age of the patient, health, gender and is expected that the ideal scaffold for bone regeneration combines factors such as bioactivity and osteoinductivity. The commercially available products have as their main function the replacement of bone. Moreover, scaffolds still present limitations including poor osteointegration and limited vascularization. The introduction of pores in scaffolds are being used to promote the osteointegration as it allows cell and vessel infiltration. Moreover, combinations with growth factors or coatings have been explored as they can improve the osteoconductive and osteoinductive properties of the scaffold. This review focuses on the bone defects treatments and on the research of scaffolds for bone regeneration. Moreover, it summarizes the latest progress in the development of coatings used in bone tissue engineering. Despite the interesting advances which include the development of hybrid scaffolds, there are still important challenges that need to be addressed in order to fasten translation of scaffolds into the clinical scenario. Finally, we must reflect on the main challenges for bone tissue regeneration. There is a need to achieve a proper mechanical properties to bear the load of movements; have a scaffolds with a structure that fit the bone anatomy.

JournalJournal of Materials Science: Materials in Medicine
Date Published2020-02-13
Keywordsbone, Coating, Scaffold
Peer reviewedyes

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