On the Bioactivity of Echinacea purpurea Extracts to Modulate the Production of Inflammatory Mediators

last updated: 2022-11-09
ProjectCells4_IDs :: publications list
TitleOn the Bioactivity of Echinacea purpurea Extracts to Modulate the Production of Inflammatory Mediators
Publication TypePapers in Scientific Journals
Year of Publication2022
AuthorsVieira S. F., Gonçalves V. M. F., Llaguno C. P., Macías F., Tiritan M. E., Reis R. L., Ferreira H., and Neves N. M.

Inflammatory diseases are the focus of several clinical studies, due to limitations and serious side effects of available therapies. Plant-based drugs (e.g., salicylic acid, morphine) have become landmarks in the pharmaceutical field. Therefore, we investigated the immunomodulatory effects of flowers, leaves, and roots from Echinacea purpurea. Ethanolic (EE) and dichloromethanolic extracts (DE) were obtained using the Accelerated Solvent Extractor and aqueous extracts (AE) were prepared under stirring. Their chemical fingerprint was evaluated by liquid chromatography–high resolution mass spectrometry (LC-HRMS). The pro- and anti-inflammatory effects, as well as the reduction in intracellular reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS/RNS), of the different extracts were evaluated using non-stimulated and lipopolysaccharide-stimulated macrophages. Interestingly, AE were able to stimulate macrophages to produce pro-inflammatory cytokines (tumor necrosis factor -TNF-α, interleukin -IL-1β, and IL-6), and to generate ROS/RNS. Conversely, under an inflammatory scenario, all extracts reduced the amount of pro-inflammatory mediators. DE, alkylamides-enriched extracts, showed the strongest anti-inflammatory activity. Moreover, E. purpurea extracts demonstrated generally a more robust anti-inflammatory activity than clinically used anti-inflammatory drugs (dexamethasone, diclofenac, salicylic acid, and celecoxib). Therefore, E. purpurea extracts may be used to develop new effective therapeutic formulations for disorders in which the immune system is either overactive or impaired.

Journal International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Date Published2022-11-06
Keywordsalkylamides, Echinacea purpurea extracts, Inflammation, macrophages, phenols/acids, pro-inflammatory cytokines, reactive oxygen and nitrogen species
Peer reviewedyes

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